Not just gravity is responsible for the universe’s stability.
According to Einstein, the medium of gravitational force must contain a unique type of micro particle known as a “graviton” for the transmission of gravitational waves. Even after this, the enigma of gravity remains unsolved, and the quest for gravitons continues, despite the discovery of gravitational waves.
Einstein also offered a thorough definition of mass and weight, claiming that when a force is given to an object, its speed rises in direct proportion to the force. Mass is the constant in this ratio. Weight, on the other hand, refers to the influence of gravitational force on mass. Although gravity holds all the stars, planets, and gigantic pandas together, it is the universe’s weakest force.
Before delving into the electromagnetic force, it’s worth noting that it was discovered in the nineteenth century. Man was previously aware of a magnet’s attraction power, but this magnet power in things could also be manufactured by conveying an electric current or information acquired just approximately 150 years ago. This allowed the forces of a magnet and electricity to be combined into a single electromagnetic force. Later, James Clerk Maxwell established mathematical equations for the force’s field of influence.
Atoms and molecules are held together by this force. This force supports several aspects of our daily lives, including our physical structure. This force operates by the exchange of photons between charged particles. It is approximately 10^40 times stronger than gravity. Another major distinction is that only attraction operates in the gravitational force, whereas both attraction and repulsion operate in this force. As a result, it would be more accurate to refer to the electromagnetic force as an interaction.
In addition to these two forces, two more were found in the twentieth century. To comprehend these new forces, some basic knowledge of the atom’s internal structure is required.
Atoms, as we all know, are not indivisible. It also has a nucleus. In an atomic nucleus, there are primarily two sorts of particles: protons, which have a positive charge, and neutrons, which have no charge. Electrons with a negative charge continue to revolve around the nucleus. An atom contains the same number of electrons as protons.
Between these oppositely charged particles, the electromagnetic force acts. As a result, the atomic nucleus and its circling electrons are inextricably linked (if there was no magnetic force in nature, there would be no atoms nor any living or non-living existence). Because the nucleus’ neutron particles are chargeless, no force is required to keep them together.
But there’s an issue now. Particles with the same charge repel each other, while particles with opposing charges attract each other. In this sense, the protons should be pushing away from one other. Because all protons have a positive charge but the nucleus does not, all protons are tightly bonded to each other.
After much thought, scientists came to the conclusion that, in addition to gravity and electromagnetic force, there is a third force that ties the protons together, and this force is more powerful than the other two.
It was dubbed “strong force” by scientists because it is 10^2 times more potent than electromagnetic force. This force operates solely within the nucleus over a short distance of up to 10^-15 metres.
When scientists identified extra small particles in the atomic nucleus than protons and neutrons, they discovered a fourth force in the nucleus. These new particles appear quickly within the nucleus, move within it for a brief period of time, and then convert into other particles.
Scientists found that these particles are caused by a special force. Because of this effect, the nuclei of some elements in nature continue to disintegrate at a rapid rate (we know this as radioactivity). This force is known as the “weak force” by scientists. It is approximately 10^10 times weaker than electromagnetic force.
These four forces orderly bind the entire cosmos. These four forces have had a significant impact on the evolution of the cosmos.
When the cosmos began with the Big Bang, matter and energy began to spread. Space and time began to grow in tandem with matter and energy. The temperature of the cosmos was quite high in the immediate aftermath of the great explosion. These four forces were united at the moment.
Only 3 minutes after the universe’s creation, the temperature dropped so dramatically that the strong force became active. This force is responsible for the formation of nuclei by binding protons and neutrons together. The electromagnetic force became active around 5 million years later, and it formed atoms by binding nuclei and electrons together.
When stars, planets, satellites, and other celestial bodies form, the force of gravity becomes active. Scientists think that all of the forces came together in the beginning of the cosmos. As a result, scientists have been attempting to combine these forces for several decades.
Scientists have achieved partial success in merging the electromagnetic force and the partial force, as well as partial success in combining the strong force with it. However, linking the force of gravity with other forces is complicated. Significantly, we shall obtain the “Theory of Everything” by integrating these forces!
Einstein also tried for several years in this path but failed. Its efforts continue to this day. If these four forces come together, there will be an earthquake in all the rules of cosmology that have been in place for ages.
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